Ronaldinho, Luiz and Alves are among a number of high-profile players over the age of 23 on coach Mano Menezes' list of 52 players, with Inter Milan goalkeeper Julio Cesar, AC Milan defender Thiago Silva and Porto forward Hulk also included.
Only three players over the age of 23 can be included in the final 18-man squad.
Among the younger players listed are Santos sensation Neymar, Milan forward Alexandre Pato, Manchester United defender Rafael and Tottenham's Sandro.
The men's Olympic football tournament takes place from July 26 to August 11, keeping European-based players out of their club's pre-season camps.
Ronaldinho, who turns 32 next Wednesday and now plays for Flamengo, won Olympic bronze with Brazil in 2008, but the competition is the only major prize in world football the country has not won.
Menezes will cut the squad to 35 in June before selecting his final 18 on July 6.
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